Translation is a representation or recreation in one language of what is written or said in another language.
Translation is always meaning-based.
?翻译的定义应该是：―将一种语言传达的信息用另一种语言传达出来。‖（蔡毅，1995） ?翻译是将一种语言文字所蕴含的意思用另一种语言文字表达出来的文化活动。（王克非，1997） ?翻译是语际之间的信息传递和语族之间的文化交流。（萧立明，2001）
? ——―Translating consists in reproducing in the the closet terms of style.‖
?1) Direction: source language-target/receptor language (从译出语和译入语角度来看):
? a. from foreign language into Chinese
? b. from Chinese into foreign language
?2) Language symbols involved (从涉及的语言符号来看):
? a. intra-lingual translation (语内翻译)
? b. inter-lingual translation (语际翻译)
? c. inter-semiotic translation (符际翻译)
?3) Method of translation (从翻译手段来看)
? a. oral interpretation (口译)
? b. written translation (笔译)
? c. computer/machine translation (机器翻译)
4) Subject of translation (从翻译题材来看)
a. specialized-subject translation (专业性翻译)
b. literary translation (文学翻译)
c. general translation (一般性翻译)
5) Way of translation (从翻译方式上来看)
a. complete/absolute translation (全译)
b. selective translation (摘译)
c. edit and translation/ translation with reconstruction (编译)
? Criteria of translation is the plumb-line for measuring the quality of a translation and the goal for a translator to strive for.
?1.3.1 Source-language–oriented principle(以译出语为取向的原则).
Characteristics: pay extreme attention to the form of the source text, always adopts a word-for-word / line-for-line translation or transliteration.
He is a paper tiger.
This makes him lose face.
?it rains cats and dogs (?)
the Milky Way (?)
the apple of one‘s eye (?)
?2) Target-language-oriented principle (以译入语为取向的原则)
Liberal / free translation:
e.g.: What is done is done.
Kicking a man when he is down.
Liberal translation: using large number of domestication / adaptation for the reader‘s sake. This is done at the cost of the loss or damage of the original image sometimes.
Two heads are better than one.
?1.3.2Author- and – reader-oriented principle (以作者和读者为取向的原则)
Characteristics: take both the author and the reader into consideration, and strive to be faithful and smooth at the same time.
?18世纪英国爱丁堡大学教授，翻译理论家泰特勒(Alexander F. Tytler)提出的三条翻译基本原理：
1. A translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work. ?（译文应该完全传达原文的思想）
2. The style and manner of writing should be of the same character as that of the original. ?（译文的风格与笔调应与原文的一致）
3. A translation should have all the ease of the original composition.
? 严复: (《天演论》卷首的《译例言》) ―信、达、雅‖ ( faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance ) ?―译事三难：信，达，雅。求其信已大难矣，顾信矣不达，虽择犹不择也，则达尚焉。‖ ?Yan Fu‘s ―faithfulness‖ means the full and complete conveying or transmission of the original content or thought.
?His ―expressiveness‖ demands that the version must be clear and flowing without any grammatical mistakes or confused logic and sense.
?So the first two words as translation criteria are acceptable. But his ―elegance‖ is unadoptable because it refers to the use of classical Chinese before that Han Dynasty. Yan Fu held that only the language before the Han Dynasty could be considered elegant and old vocabulary, old structure of Chinese must be used in order to represent the original fully and adequately.
?Therefore he can be said to object to the use of the vernacular or popular language of the people. As a matter of fact, the vernacular began to be in fashion when Yan Fu lived. Facts prove the vernacular or the popular language of the people can be used to translate any foreign language in the world.
?So many people criticized his ―elegance.‖ Furthermore, His ―elegance‖ can only be regarded as one style. Its opposite is the style of ―boldness‖. ―Elegance‖ and ―boldness ‖ constitute two different styles. Of course there are many other styles in translation.
?1.3.3Aesthetics-oriented principle (以美学为取向的原则)
?傅雷 ：(《高老头重译本序》) 神似（similarity in spirit）傅雷先生模拟我国传统的绘画理论,提出翻译应当像临画,所求的不在形似而在神似,强调―重神似不重形似‖。
?钱钟书：化境 (sublimation / reincarnation)
?许渊冲：―三美‖（音美，意美，形美 the phonetic beauty, the semantic beauty, the formal beauty） 许渊冲译毛泽东诗词《昆仑》
I would give to Europe your crest
And to America your breast
And leave the orient the rest.
The ageless won‘t grow old
You sail with your young bride
love will warm winter cold
spring will ever abide.
Autumn-spring romance, a December-May couple 老夫少妻
Most Chinese daughters have a desire strong
To be battle-dressed and not rosy-gowned.
To face the powder and not powder the face.
1.3.4 Sociosemiotics-oriented principle (以社会符号学为取向的原则)
Characteristics: the translator should take into consideration the meaning and function conveyed by all kinds of language symbols included.
A) Designative / conceptual meaning (指称意义)
The relationship between the language symbol and the objective world it refers to e.g.: flower（花）
He can play football. (他会踢球)
?B) Linguistic meaning (言内意义): the relationship between language symbols in the level of phonetics, word syntactic and discourse.
The senator picked up his hat and courage. 参议员捡起了帽子，鼓起了勇气．(一语双叙)
Two ghosts walked into a bar and asked the bar tender, ―Do you serve spirits‖? (双关) ?C) Pragmatic meaning (语用意义)：It refers to the relationship between language symbols and its user, including indexical meaning(表征意义), expressive meaning(表达意义), social meaning(社会意义), imperative meaning(祈使意义), associative meaning(联想意义).
1. 信息功能 (informative function)
e.g. Gold melts at 300 degrees Fahrenheit.
2. 表情功能 (expressive function)
e.g. I‘m extremely sorry about…
3. 人际 /寒暄功能 (interpersonal / phatic function)
e.g. How are you?
Thank you for being with us! Good night!
4. 呼唤/祈使功能 (vocative function)
e.g. Come here!
?5. 美感功能 (aesthetic function)
e.g. My love‘s a red rose
6. 认知功能 (cognitive function) *
man has to use language to think , during the process, the language is performing the ~
7. 元语言功能 (metalingual function)
e.g. Chinese is a tonal language
?西方最流行的标准是等值(equivalent value)，等效(equivalent effect)，功能对等(functional equivalence)。
?陈宏薇：―功能相似，语意相符‖(similarity in function and correspondence in meaning)
?严复：信，达，雅（faithfulness, expressiveness, elegance）
?刘重德：信，达，切 （faithfulness, expressiveness, closeness）
?傅雷：神似（similarity in spirit）
?About a half century ago, the late respected and beloved premier Zhou Enlai, in an interview with students of Beijing Foreign Languages Institute (now Beijing Foreign Studies University), strengthened the ―basic training‖ in the three essential aspects: the enhancement of our political consciousness, the betterment of our command of the relevant languages, and the broadening of the range and scope of our general knowledge.
?深厚的语言功底 (a good command of the source and target language)
?广博的文化知识 (a wide range and scope of knowledge)
?高度的责任感 (a high responsibility)
?He found there were many unreliable points in the geography record which be researched by the people before.
?He found there were many unreliable points in the geographic records kept by his predecessors.
?This man was thrusting one huge extended hand towards him, while in the other he held a roll
of steamed bread, from which crimson drops were dripping to the ground.（杨宪益、戴乃迭译） 广博的文化知识
?The enemy killed one of our comrades and we killed an enemy agent.
?The peasants and workers were hand in glove with one another in the struggle against the landlords and capitalists who worked hand in glove with each other.
NC switching power supply
Abstract：This system based on 51 SCM control unit, used for LM2576-wild numerical control a switching power supply of fuzzy digital control technology, adjust load R1, R2 proportion to change occupies empties compared to make the output stability, and can be through the buttons, digital display to realize output voltage numerical control. In addition, the system to input pressure, flow, input output flow, switch tube overheat as well as the protection circuit, ensure that the system is stable and reliable.
Key words: the numerical control，switching power supply，LM2576-wild，micro controller
(一)The overall design of the system
System to monolithic integrated circuit AT89S52, LM2576-for the core part, and the wild through the monolithic integrated circuit to output voltage gather, comparison, operations, and the output voltage control, automatic regulation system structure diagram shown as shown in figure 1.
220 V / 50 Hz ac voltage after rectifying circuit and DC/DC voltage chip LM2576 wild transformation for stable-5 ~ 12 V DC voltage output, the output voltage through sampling circuit by sampling, A/D conversion chip ADC0804 after converting to 52 after processing, control simulation electron switch to choose 4051 respectively the nine potentiometer R2, change R1 and R2 ratio values, which change LM2576-of the wild chip PWM pulse of empty, MOS tubes work than to switch state in, the input of 15 V DC voltage "chopped" for the and of the same frequency PWM waves pulse wave, pulse wave through the rectifier filter circuit output for 5 ~ 12 V DC voltage. Because of this the topic request have nine output stepping demand, so can tune in advance each voltage resistance, through the corresponding key choice output voltage, directly to the analog switch 4067 choose resistance, they can get to output voltage. At the same time, to detect the voltage, current value through the display LCD1062 real-time display. If working current is too big, the flow detection circuit will be sent to the testing results of single-chip microcomputer, SCM control relay
through the ac branch realize over-current protection system in fault, after the operation is set by the reset button to may cause the system to resume normal work.
（二）The block diagram of the whole system
(三) Unit circuit function and the analysis of the operation
1. Minimum AT89S52 SCM system
Minimum system including crystal oscillator circuit and reset switch and power supply parts. Figure 2 for the minimum AT89S52 SCM system.
The wave rectifier circuit is made up of two half wave of rectifier circuit. Because in the next two, add on miens input voltage of the opposite polarity, therefore, to a dynamic balance, in every signal cycle, the C1 and C2 experience 2 times charger, discharge process, current will appear two current pulse with polarity. So in addition to the Vo saw tooth wave on the wavy frequency, improve the ability of double filtering, thus reduce ripple voltage.
The dc power by power supply, filtering, protection, such as voltage, four basic modules.
(1)The power transformer USES a step-down transformer, the power grid voltage 220 V transform into need ac voltage. The ac voltage
After rectifying, may obtain electronic equipment need dc voltage.
(2) Use rectifier circuit bridge rectifier circuit single-phase, 50 Hz ac alternating current transformation for direction invariable but still has the pulse size straight
Flow electricity. Its advantage is high voltage ripple voltage, small, the utilization rate of transformer high. This design by A bridge pile of bridge rectifier, RS808 do maximum current can reach 8 A, cooperate with the design of the large filter capacitance, so the power of the instantaneous large current power supply characteristics, low noise, good reaction speed, output ripple small.
（3） Filter circuit using capacitance filter circuit, will the pulsation of the rectifier circuit output filter, get most of the components is smooth dc the electricity. This circuit adopts 4700 u F / 50 V large capacitance C3, C4 to make the output voltage more smooth, the power supply characteristics moment, suitable for take the perceptual load, such as motor start-up. C3, C4 every parallel connection a 0.1 u F / 63 V CBB capacitance, filter to high frequency interference, make input to integrated circuits L11, L12 of dc as far as possible the smooth and pure.
（4） By LM317 output voltage circuit is power, LM337 output negative supply. LM317 and LM337 are used internal heat Load, contains over current protection, hot off and safety working area for perfect protection circuit, that power can save the fuse, and so easy loss device. Regulating circuit: to meet the needs of the different
application situation and the voltage is set to can be adjusted. The calculation of the output voltage Vo = 1.25 x (1 + Rf/R), adjustable resistance in use precision can be resistor and guarantee the precise output voltage can be adjusted. If this article chooses for 5 k of Rf Ω, R for 270 Ω combination, can respectively on 1.25 V ~ 24 V
1.25 V ~ 24 V achieve continuous adjustable between.
（5） Protection circuit for linear power supply heat, so the power larger add enough radiator. Due to the high performance integrated circuit, which can simplify the circuit structure, highlighting the important part in the power transformation. Through the commissioning and testing, good performance. The whole circuit The power not only can be used alone, also can be in other electronic equipment used in voltage or current stabilization source use.
2. LM2576-voltage circuit wild
Assume that the switch transistors, diodes are ideal components, inductance and capacitance is ideal components, the output voltage ripple voltage output voltage and the ratio of the small to allow oversight.
According to the current cycle to begin in IL inductance is starting from scratch, can be divided into current continuous working mode and inductance inductive current is discontinuous work patterns. Due to the continuous work mode inductance current converter, have very good control characteristic; Inductive current is discontinuous work mode, put the electric, inductance and capacitance easy to produce the oscillation, thus affecting the output voltage ripple; And the same occupies empties compared, output voltage in discrete model under the mode of work than the big, high efficiency. To sum up, the most ideal situation is in critical condition, stabilizer which work so we use two kinds of methods:
(1)The increase of the inductance inductive energy storage, increase, and extend the discharge of time
(2)Improve the work and reduce the frequency switch time
Make transistor in current continuous state.
3. The whole wave output rectifier circuit parameter analysis
Output filter by free-wheeling diode rectifier circuit, inductance and capacitance composition. Consider free-wheeling diode in tube by PMOS transistor conduction, when energy consumption, and work in the state, so we used the low power consumption, high current, high-speed Scotty diodes IN5817, the characteristics as follows:
Maximum peak reverse voltage: 40 V
The biggest reverse RMS voltage: 28 V
The biggest dc voltage: 40 V block
The biggest positive average rectifier current: 1 A
The biggest positive pressure drop: 0.6 V (1 A) BUCK converter principle by analysis shows that in order to make work in inductive current circuit continuous mode, and the ripple voltage
So as far as possible, should be made great inductance we choose for 8 mH inductance
mainly is the "absorb" ripple with a smooth, the role of the voltage waveform. Capacitance and inductance is equivalent to a low pass filtering filter, the cut-off frequency defined as
Considering the capacitance
equivalent series resistance losses, we choose the capacitance for 1000 uF.
fc???562Hz Vgs(th)?(?2~?4)V At this time the cut-off frequency of about 562 Hz ac, visible to dozens of kHz PWM waves have very good filtering effect.
4. Input over-voltage protection
When the input voltage in the normal range, the input sampling voltage comparator, less than the benchmark voltage output low level; When the input pressure, input voltage is greater than the benchmark sampling comparison output voltage, high level, ARM produce external interruption, warning, blockade, make PMOS transistor tube PWM signal, in order to protect the circuit damage.
5. Over-current protection
Usually with hall current sensor detection of current directly PMOS transistor, and then with setting the Id threshold value, compared with comparison to control the output of the driver signal shut off; Or by indirect method, the flow test voltage when the voltage drop the Vsd PMOS transistor, because the pressure drop contains short-circuit current information flow, when the Vsd increasing, and basically for linear relationship, when the Vsd and with setting the threshold value is used in the comparison, the comparator output control power circuit of the shutoff.
关键字：数控开关电源 LM2576-ADJ 单片机
同时将检测到的电压、电流值通过显示器LCD1062实时显示。若工作电流太大时, 过流检测电路将检测结果送至单片机, 单片机通过控制继电器切断交流支路实现过流保护, 系统在故障后通过操作设置的复位键可以使系统恢复正常工作。
1. Making Self-introduction
Established in 1950, we, a leading importer and exporter of business machines, have been expanding our business operations around the world. Now we are planning to incorporate our business activities in your market as general base in Asia.
We shall be much obliged if you will introduce to us a most reliable importer handling business machines. Our line of business includes: Typewriter, Copying Machines, Company Printing Machines, Cash Registers, Addressing Machines, etc. Concerning our financial status and reputation, please direct all inquiries to the Bank of China, the First Commercial Bank, Beijing or the Newman Cash Register Co. Ltd. in China.
Thank you very much for your co-operation. We hope to hear from you soon.
2. Starting Business Relations with an Exporter
We owe your name to the First Commercial Bank at your end, through whom we understand that you are well experienced in the export of engineering equipment with service.
We take this opportunity to introduce ourselves as one of the importers buying various kinds of machines, instruments, tools, etc., for clients in the east China region. In order to let us have a better understand of your products with full details. Upon receipt of such materials, we shall see what items are of interest to and pass our enquiries to you.
We anticipate the pleasure of hearing from you in the near future.
3. Request for the Establishment of Business Relation
As your name and address were listed in The Textile Magazine, we are writing in the hope of opening an account with your company.
We are one of the leading exporters of first class cotton and rayon goods and excellent reputation
through fifty years’ business experience. We are sure that you will be quite satisfied with our services and the excellent quality of our goods. We enclose herewith a pamphlet introducing our business standing and outline, the complete catalog of our goods, and some samples from which you will readily observe the extent of our reliabilities. If you need more objective information concerning our credit, please refer to The Bank of America, New York and Kahn Co. Ltd., Chicago.
We are looking forward to your early and favorable reply.
Very truly yours,
4. A Reply to the Request for the Establishment of Business Relations
We thank you for your letter of 5th this month and shall be glad to enter into business relations with you.
Complying with your request, we are sending you separate cover our latest catalogue and pricelist covering our exports. Payment should be made by an irrevocable and confirmed letter of credit. If you find business possible, please contact us for offers.
For more information, please contact us through E-mail.
5. Making an Enquiry
We have got the address of your company through your www.wongsheng.com.cn.
Let us introduce our company. Our main business is selling famous-brand athletic shoes, such as Nike, Adidas, and so on. We believe there is a promising market in the U.S.A. and Canada. We are looking for a supplier as our long term partner, and we would like you to send us detailed information on such items, including sizes, colours, and your lowest quotations on CIF New York. If your prices are competitive, we may place a large order.
We are looking forward to hearing soon about what we need in this regard.
6. Making an Offer
We are very pleased to receive your enquiry of April 6. We are sending you our quotation today, and the latest illustrated catalogue and samples by separate post.
As requested, we are making you, subject to your acceptance reaching us not later than April 20, the following offer based on 20’FCL. Quantities less than that are slightly higher. Other terms and conditions are the same as usual.
As there has been a large demand for the two items, such a growing demand can only result in the increase in price. We advise you to place an order as soon as possible.
We are looking forward to having your early order.
7. Sending Proforma Invoice
Thank you for your interest in purchasing 6000 pieces of our Good Luck Brand Electric Fans. Complying with request in your letter dated April 26, we take pleasure in enclosing you our Proforma Invoice in quadruplicate. We would like you note that our offer remains valid for ten days only.
For your information, the goods you enquired for have commanded a good market, and we have received a lot of other enquiries for them. Please take all the necessary steps you can do without delay.
We anticipate the pleasure hearing from you soon.
8. Making a Voluntary Offer
You might be interested in our Chinese silk goods. We are sending you herewith a copy of sample book illustrating our full-range products, together with our current pricelist.
All our silk items are of nice colours, modern designs and good quality. They are selling very
well in the new season. From all the list prices, a trade discount of 30% and a further special discount are allowed, that is 35% in all, if orders arrive at us on or before May 11. Perhaps you would be good enough to study the information sent by us, and you will observe that at the quoted prices, the goods we are offering are good value for money after a trail order. Why not take full advantage of the favourable terms?
We trust that many of the items in our catalogue will be of interest to you. We would be pleased to serve you if you like them.
Looking forward to hearing from you soon.
9. Request for Lower Price
We are pleased to receive your offer of March 22, 2005 and an illustrated catalogue.
In reply, we regret to say that your prices are out of line with the current market level. Information here shows that the makes offered by you can be obtained from other sources at prices much lower than yours. Moreover, the market is declining.
In this case, it is impossible for us to persuade our customers to accept your prices even though you can supply full-rang famous-brand athletic shoes. If you were prepared to reduce your limit by, say 6%, we might come to terms.
It is true competitive prices will often result in a high market share with great profit in the future. We wish you to consider this factor.
We await your prompt reply.
要求减价(转 载于:wWw.SmHaIDA.cOM 海达 范文 网:百度中英文互译)
10. Declining Price Reduction
Thank you for your fax of April 2, but we regret to learn that you feel our prices too high.
We would like to point out that the prices we quoted are our lowest level, which makes the profit margin very thin. So we can not see our way clear to make any reduction in the price of this type.
With a view to supporting your sales, we recommend our Type304 as an excellent substitute at your previously-mentioned price. It is of the similar quality and function to the substance you demand.
Your favourable consideration of this opportunity would be highly appreciated.
11. Concession on Price
We are glad to receive your letter of April 5. To our regret, we are informed that our prices can’t match the market level. Considering the quality of the shoes offered, we feel our prices realistic, even though a large number of shoes of similar design from various other countries are sold at price below ours. Ours low leave with narrow margin of profit.
Therefore we are very sorry to say that we are not in a position to accept your counter-offer or even to meet you half way. But we are anxious to do everything we can to aid an old customer like you to develop the trade. We are prepared to allow you 4% commission on each pair, plus a discount of 5% on all orders coming to us before the end of this month.
We are looking forward to having your early order.
12. Increase in Price
We wish to inform you that we have adjusted the price as we previously quoted you for the cell phones you required. Our new prices take effect on September 20.
May we explain the increase in the prices to you. They result from three points: the sudden rise in freight cost on September 19 because of tighter freight and port market; the continual increase in the prices of material; the steady rise in the labour cost as the result of economics in the directions. We know frequent changes of price are most unfavourable, but we can’t keep our old prices any longer in order to cover the increasing cost: cut the allowance to 3% on purchase quantity not less than 1000 articles, and reduce the commission to 4% each.
In fact, these prices are still about 3% below the market level because we would like to continue to do business with you. Furthermore, our goods remain competitive for their excellent quality, fashionable designs and popular colours. We trust they will help you a lot of stand firmly in your
1、 我们应该互相帮助 。
4、 When is your first time to come to China?
5、 To our surprise, he held out his hands.
8、 You can call me “Mr. Li”.
9、 He likes to play basketball for exercise.
10、 Drinking milk is good for you.
14、 I am much better at math this year.
15、 I hope I will become a scientist in the future
19、 Let’s meet at a quarter to four.
20、 A thief rushed into the room yesterday.
23、 Everyone was very surprised.
24、 I have been in China for three years.
25、 Each of the students has a pencil.
29、 I’d like to buy a present for him.
30、 I don’t think he can answer the question.
33、 Remember me when you use the pen.
34、 I wish you a long life.
35、 Please buy me some new stamps.
39、 He is standing at the street corner.
40、 There are so many cars in the street every day.
43、 My pet dog always follows me around.
44、 He often walks around after supper.
45、 On my way to Shijiazhuang I got lost
48、 There is a smell of cooking.
49、 It’s very enjoyable to interview the kind tailor.
53、 I have a lot of homework to do.
54、 It has so many good things to read.
55、 Turn right at the second crossing.
56、 He’s so clever a boy.
59、 My book is the same as yours.
63、 Our classroom is the same as yours.
64、 I don’t know how to use this computer.
67、 I hate watching TV ,but I don’t hate to watch it today.
68、 We need another ten boys to help us.
73、 She invited me to go to the movies with her next Sunday.
75、 Each student has a book.
76、 I am much better at art this year.
77、 I often watch the children play games in the park.
78、 But I saw him smile.
83、 It seemed that he was very happy.
84、 I have downloaded some more pictures of Beijing
85、 Maybe it’ll rain tomorrow.
88、 The old photo reminds me of my grandmother.
89、 Have you done anything interesting this week?
90、 I have something important to tell you.
94、 That’s too expensive.
95、 Does it fit?
98、 The boy runs across the playground.
99、 The plane flies over the city.
100、 He runs fast enough.